As of January 31, 1997, 140 states-parties have either ratified (R) or acceded (A) to the treaty, as indicated in the table below; 18 additional signatories that have not ratified the convention are also listed. These countries' status with regard to the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which prohibits the use of biological weapons, is also noted. Some states have deposited reservations to the BWC or Geneva Protocol, and those relevant to the application of the treaty are noted below.
Countries in bold type have been identified by U.S. government sources as having or actively developing biological weapons programs. (See notes a through d for sources.) Members of the Australia Group, an informal export control organization that shares information on the trade in chemical and biological agents, are shown in italics.
|Date of Signature||Date of Ratification or Accession||Date of Ratification|
|Bahamas, The||11/26/86 (A)||7/10/732,3|
|Bosnia & Herzegovina||8/15/94 (A)|
|Burkina Faso||4/17/91 (A)||3/3/71|
|Cape Verde||10/20/77 (A)||10/15/91|
|Cental African Rep.||4/10/72||7/31/70|
|Costa Rica||4/10/72||12/17/73 (R)|
|Czech Republic||4/5/93 (A)||8/16/38|
|Dominican Republic||4/10/72||2/23/73 (R)||12/8/70|
|El Salvador||4/10/72||12/31/91 (R)||Signatory|
|Equatorial Guinea||1/16/89 (A)||5/20/89|
|Gambia, The||6/2/72||11/21/91 (R)||11/5/66|
|Korea, Northabd||3/13/87 (A)||1/4/892,3|
|Korea, South||4/10/72||6/25/87 (R)||1/4/892,3|
|Netherlands, The||4/10/72||6/22/81 (R)||10/31/30|
|New Zealand||4/10/72||12/13/72 (R)||5/24/30|
|Papua New Guinea||10/27/80 (A)||9/2/802,3|
|Saint Kitts & Nevis||4/2/91 (A)||4/27/89|
|Saint Lucia||11/26/86 (A)||12/21/88|
|San Marino||9/12/72||3/11/75 (R)|
|Sao Tome & Principe||8/24/79 (A)|
|Saudi Arabia||4/12/72||5/24/72 (R)||1/27/71|
|Serbia & Montenegro||4/10/72||10/25/73 (R)|
|Sierra Leone||11/7/72||6/29/76 (R)||3/20/67|
|Slovak Republic||5/17/93 (A)||9/22/93|
|Solomon Islands||6/17/81 (A)||6/1/81|
|South Africa||4/10/72||11/3/75 (R)||5/24/302,3|
|Sri Lanka||4/10/72||11/18/86 (R)||1/20/54|
|United Arab Emirates||9/28/72|
|United Kingdom||4/10/72||3/26/75 (R)||4/9/302,3|
|United States||4/10/72||3/26/75 (R)||4/10/754|
Sources: ACDA, Government of France, Government of the United Kingdom, UN Treaty Office, U.S. Department of State Treaty Office.
Notes: a, b, c, d: Suspect according to: a. Speech by DCI John Deutch before the Los Alamos National Laboratory Conference on Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons Proliferation and Terrorism, May 23, 1996; b. "Proliferation: Threat and Response," DOD. 1996; c. 1995 ACDA Annual Report; d. Office of Technology Assessment, 1993.
1. Binding with respect to neutrality status.
2. Binding only as regards relations with other parties.
3. To cease to be binding in regard to any enemy states whose armed forces or allies do not observe provisions.
4. To cease to be binding as regards use of chemical agents with respect to any enemy state whose armed forces or allies do not observe provisions.
5. Submitted background information declaring full compliance with obligations under the convention. BWC/CONF IV/3 (October 28, 1996)