Login/Logout

*
*  

"[The Arms Control Association is an] 'exceptional organization that effectively addresses pressing national and international challenges with an impact that is disproportionate to its small size.'" 

– John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
January 19, 2011
Biological Weapons Convention Signatories and States-Parties

Last Reviewed: 
November 2020

Contact: Kelsey Davenport, Director for Nonproliferation Policy, (202) 463-8270 x102

The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) currently has 183 states-parties, including Palestine, and four signatories (Egypt, Haiti, Somalia, and Syria). Ten states have neither signed nor ratified the BWC (Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Israel, Kiribati, Micronesia, Namibia, South Sudan, and Tuvalu). The BWC opened for signature on April 10, 1972, and entered into force on March 26, 1975. A country that did not ratify the BWC before it entered into force may accede to it at any time.

For a guide to the terms of the convention, see The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) at a Glance.

Country Signature Ratification/Accession
Afghanistan 4/10/72
3/26/75
Albania -
6/3/92
Algeria -
7/28/01
Andorra -
3/2/15
Angola -
07/26/16
Antigua & Barbuda - 1/29/03
Argentina 8/1/72 11/27/79
Armenia -
6/7/94
Australia 4/10/72
10/5/77
Austria 4/10/72
8/10/73
Azerbaijan -
2/26/04
Bahamas - 11/26/86
Bahrain -
10/28/88
Bangladesh -
3/11/85
Barbados 2/16/73 2/16/73
Belarus 4/10/72
3/26/75
Belgium 4/10/72
3/15/79
Belize [1] - 10/20/86
Benin 4/10/72
4/25/75
Bhutan -
6/8/78
Bolivia 4/10/72
10/30/75
Bosnia and Herzegovina [2] -
8/15/94
Botswana 4/10/72
2/5/92
Brazil 4/10/72
2/27/73
Brunei Darussalam -
1/31/91
Bulgaria 4/10/72
8/2/72
Burkina Faso -
4/17/91
Burundi 4/10/72
10/18/11
Cambodia 4/10/72
3/9/83
Cameroon - 1/18/13
Canada 4/10/72
9/18/72
Cape Verde -
10/20/77
Central African Republic 4/10/72 9/25/18
Chile 4/10/72
4/22/80
China -
11/15/84
Colombia 4/10/72
12/19/83
Congo -
10/23/78
Cook Islands - 12/4/08
Costa Rica 4/10/72
12/17/73
Côte d'Ivoire 5/23/72
3/23/16
Croatia [2] -
4/28/93
Cuba 4/12/72
4/21/76
Cyprus 4/10/72
11/6/73
Czech Republic [3] -
4/5/93
Democratic Republic of Congo [4] 4/10/72
9/16/75
Denmark 4/10/72
3/1/73
Dominica -
8/1/16
Dominican Republic 4/10/72
2/23/73
Ecuador 6/14/72
3/12/75
Egypt 4/10/72 -
El Salvador 4/10/72
12/31/91
Equatorial Guinea -
1/16/89
Estonia -
6/21/93
Eswatini -
6/18/91
Ethiopia 4/10/72
5/26/75
Fiji 2/22/73
9/4/73
Finland 4/10/72
2/4/74
France -
9/27/84
Gabon 4/10/72
8/16/07
Gambia 6/2/72
5/7/97
Georgia -
5/22/96
Germany [5] 4/10/72
4/7/83
Ghana 4/10/72
6/6/75
Greece 4/10/72
12/10/75
Grenada -
10/22/86
Guatemala 5/9/72
9/19/73
Guinea   11/9/16
Guinea-Bissau -
8/20/76
Guyana 1/3/73
3/26/13
Haiti 4/10/72
-
Holy See 1/4/02
1/7/02
Honduras 4/10/72
3/14/79
Hungary 4/10/72 12/27/72
Iceland 4/10/72
2/15/73
India 1/15/73
7/15/74
Indonesia 6/20/72
2/4/92
Iran 4/10/72
8/22/73
Iraq 5/11/72 6/19/91
Ireland 4/10/72 10/27/72
Italy 4/10/72
5/30/75
Jamaica -
8/13/75
Japan 4/10/72
6/8/82
Jordan 4/10/72
5/30/75
Kazakhstan -
6/15/07
Kenya -
1/7/76
Kuwait 4/14/72
7/18/72
Kyrgyzstan - 10/15/04
Laos 4/10/72
3/20/73
Latvia -
2/6/97
Lebanon 4/10/72 3/26/75
Lesotho 4/10/72
9/6/77
Liberia 4/10/72
11/4/16
Libya 4/10/72 1/19/82
Liechtenstein -
5/30/91
Lithuania -
2/10/98
Luxembourg 4/10/72
3/23/76
Madagascar 10/13/72
3/7/08
Malawi 4/10/72
4/2/13
Malaysia 4/10/72
9/6/91
Maldives -
8/2/93
Mali 4/10/72
11/25/02
Malta 9/11/72
4/7/75
Marshall Islands   11/15/12
Mauritania   1/28/15
Mauritius 4/10/72
8/7/72
Mexico 4/10/72
4/8/74
Moldova - 1/28/05
Monaco -
4/30/99
Mongolia 4/10/72
9/5/72
Montenegro [6] -
6/3/06
Morocco 5/2/72
3/21/02
Mozambique - 3/29/11
Myanmar 4/10/72  12/1/14
Nauru - 3/5/13
Nepal 4/10/72
11/4/16
Netherlands 4/10/72
6/22/81
New Zealand 4/10/72
12/13/72
Nicaragua 4/10/72
8/7/75
Niger 4/21/72
6/23/72
Nigeria 7/3/72
7/3/73
Niue   6/14/18
North Korea - 3/13/87
North Macedonia [2] -
12/24/96
Norway 4/10/72
8/1/73
Oman -
3/31/92
Pakistan 4/10/72
9/25/74
Palau - 2/20/03
Palestine - 1/9/18
Panama 5/2/72 3/20/74
Papua New Guinea -
10/27/80
Paraguay -
6/9/76
Peru 4/10/72
6/5/85
Philippines 4/10/72
5/21/73
Poland 4/10/72
1/25/73
Portugal 6/29/72
5/15/75
Qatar 11/14/72
4/17/75
Romania 4/10/72
7/25/79
Russia [7] 4/10/72
3/26/75
Rwanda 4/10/72
5/20/75
St. Kitts & Nevis -
4/2/91
St. Lucia [8] -
11/26/86
St. Vincent & the Grenadines [8] -
5/13/99
Samoa   9/21/17
San Marino 9/12/72
3/11/75
Sao Tome and Principe - 8/24/79
Saudi Arabia 4/12/72
5/24/72
Senegal 4/10/72
3/26/75
Serbia [2] [6] - 4/27/92
Seychelles -
10/11/79
Sierra Leone 11/7/72
6/29/76
Singapore 6/19/72
12/2/75
Slovakia [3] -
1/1/93
Slovenia [2] -
4/7/92
Solomon Islands [8] -
6/17/81
Somalia 7/3/72 -
South Africa 4/10/72
11/3/75
South Korea 4/10/72
6/25/87
Spain 4/10/72
6/20/79
Sri Lanka 4/10/72
11/18/76
Sudan -
10/17/03
Suriname -
1/6/93
Sweden 2/27/74
2/5/76
Switzerland 4/10/72
5/4/76
Syria 4/14/72 -
Tajikistan - 6/27/05
Tanzania 8/16/72
8/14/19
Thailand 1/17/73
5/28/75
Timor Leste - 5/5/03
Togo 4/10/72
11/10/76
Tonga - 9/28/76
Trinidad & Tobago - 7/19/07
Tunisia 4/10/72
5/18/73
Turkey 4/10/72
10/25/74
Turkmenistan - 1/11/96
Uganda -
5/12/92
Ukraine 4/10/72
3/26/75
United Arab Emirates 9/28/72
6/19/08
United Kingdom 4/10/72
3/26/75
United States 4/10/72
3/26/75
Uruguay -
4/6/81
Uzbekistan -
1/26/96
Vanuatu -
9/6/16
Venezuela 4/10/72
10/18/78
Vietnam 4/10/72
6/20/80
Yemen [9] 4/26/72
6/1/79
Zambia -
1/15/08
Zimbabwe -
11/5/90

Taiwan (the Republic of China) has also stated its intent to abide by the treaty, despite not being a state party. The Republic of China signed the treaty on April 10, 1972 and ratified it on February 9, 1973.

Source: UN Website

Research assistance by Marissa Papatola

Footnotes

1. Succession from the United Kingdom

2. Succession from Yugoslavia

3. Succession from Czechoslovakia

4. Ratification as Zaire

5. Ratification as East Germany and West Germany

6. Ratified as Serbia and Montenegro

7. Ratified as the Soviet Union

8. Succession from the United Kingdom

9. Ratified as South Yemen and North Yemen