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former IAEA Director-General

Biological Weapons Convention Signatories and States-Parties
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Contact: Kelsey Davenport, Director for Nonproliferation Policy, (202) 463-8270 x102

Updated: September 2017

The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) currently has 179 states-parties and six signatories (Central African Republic, Egypt, Haiti, Somalia, Syria, and Tanzania). Eleven states have neither signed nor ratified the BWC (Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Israel, Kiribati, Micronesia, Namibia, Niue, South Sudan and Tuvalu). The BWC opened for signature on April 10, 1972 and entered into force on March 26, 1975. A country that did not ratify the BWC before it entered into force may accede to it at any time.

For a guide to the terms of the convention, see The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) at a Glance.

 

Country

Signature

Ratification/Accession

Afghanistan4/10/72
3/26/75
Albania-
6/3/92
Algeria-
7/22/01
Andorra-
02/27/15
Angola-
07/26/16
Antigua & Barbuda-1/29/03
Argentina8/1/7211/27/79
Armenia-
6/7/94
Australia4/10/72
10/5/77
Austria4/10/72
8/10/73
Azerbaijan-
2/26/04
Bahamas-11/26/86
Bahrain-
10/28/88
Bangladesh-
3/11/85
Barbados2/16/732/16/73
Belarus4/10/72
3/26/75
Belgium4/10/72
3/15/79
Belize [1]-10/20/86
Benin4/10/72
4/25/75
Bhutan-
6/8/78
Bolivia4/10/72
4/25/75
Bosnia and Herzegovina [2]-
8/15/94
Botswana4/10/72
2/5/92
Brazil4/10/72
2/27/73
Brunei Darussalem-
1/31/91
Bulgaria4/10/72
8/2/72
Burkina Faso-
4/17/91
Burundi4/10/72
10/18/11
Cambodia4/10/72
3/9/83
Cameroon-1/18/13
Canada4/10/72
9/18/72
Cape Verde-
10/20/77
Central African Republic4/10/72-
Chile4/10/72
4/22/80
China-
11/15/84
Colombia4/10/72
12/19/83
Congo-
10/23/78
Cook Islands-12/4/08
Costa Rica4/10/72
12/17/73
Côte d'Ivoire5/23/72
3/23/16
Croatia [2]-
4/28/93
Cuba4/10/72
4/21/76
Cyprus4/10/72
11/6/73
Czech Republic [3]-
4/5/93
Democratic Republic of Congo [4]4/10/72
9/16/75
Denmark4/10/72
3/1/73
Dominica-
11/8/78
Dominican Republic4/10/72
2/23/73
Ecuador6/14/72
3/21/73
Egypt4/10/72-
El Salvador4/10/72
12/31/91
Equatorial Guinea-
1/16/89
Estonia-
6/21/93
Ethiopia4/10/72
5/26/75
Fiji2/22/73
9/4/73
Finland4/10/72
2/4/74
France-
9/27/84
Gabon4/10/72
8/16/07
Gambia6/2/72
11/21/91
Georgia-
5/23/96
Germany [5]4/10/72
11/28/72
Ghana4/10/72
6/6/75
Greece4/10/72
12/10/75
Grenada-
10/22/86
Guatemala5/9/72
9/19/73
Guinea-Bissau-
8/20/76
Guyana1/3/73
3/26/13
Haiti4/10/72
-
Holy See1/4/02
1/4/02
Honduras4/10/72
3/14/79
Hungary4/10/7212/27/72
Iceland4/10/72
2/15/73
India1/15/73
7/15/74
Indonesia6/20/72
2/19/92
Iran4/10/72
8/22/73
Iraq5/11/726/19/91
Ireland4/10/7210/27/72
Italy4/10/72
5/30/75
Jamaica-
8/13/75
Japan4/10/72
6/8/82
Jordan4/10/72
5/30/75
Kazakhstan-
6/15/07
Kenya-
11/7/76
Kuwait4/14/72
7/18/72
Kyrgyzstan-10/15/04
Laos4/10/72
3/20/73
Latvia-
2/6/97
Lebanon4/10/723/26/75
Lesotho4/10/72
9/6/77
Liberia4/10/72
11/4/16
Libya-1/19/82
Liechtenstein-
5/30/91
Lithuania-
2/10/98
Luxembourg4/10/72
3/23/76
Macedonia [2]-
12/24/96
Madagascar10/13/72
3/7/08
Malawi4/10/72
4/2/13
Malaysia4/10/72
9/6/91
Maldives-
8/2/93
Mali4/10/72
11/25/02
Malta9/11/72
4/7/75
Marshall Islands 11/15/12
Mauritania 1/28/15
Mauritius4/10/72
8/7/72
Mexico4/10/72
4/8/74
Moldova-1/25/05
Monaco-
4/30/99
Mongolia4/10/72
9/5/72
Montenegro [6]4/10/72
6/3/06
Morocco5/2/72
3/21/02
Mozambique-3/29/11
Myanmar4/10/72 12/1/14
Nauru-3/5/13
Nepal4/10/72
11/4/16
Netherlands4/10/72
6/22/81
New Zealand4/10/72
12/13/72
Nicaragua4/10/72
7/8/75
Niger4/21/72
6/23/72
Nigeria7/3/72
7/3/73
North Korea-3/13/87
Norway4/10/72
8/1/73
Oman-
3/31/92
Pakistan4/10/72
9/25/74
Palau-2/20/03
Panama5/2/723/20/74
Papua New Guinea-
10/27/80
Paraguay-
6/9/76
Peru4/10/72
6/5/85
Philippines4/10/72
5/21/73
Poland4/10/72
1/25/73
Portugal6/29/72
5/15/75
Qatar11/14/72
4/17/75
Romania4/10/72
7/25/79
Russia [7]4/10/72
3/26/75
Rwanda4/10/72
5/20/75
St. Kitts & Nevis-
4/2/91
St. Lucia [8]-
11/26/86
St. Vincent & the Grenadines [8]-
4/2/91
Samoa 9/21/17
San Marino9/12/72
3/11/75
Sao Tome and Principe-8/24/79
Saudi Arabia4/10/72
5/24/72
Senegal4/10/72
3/26/75
Serbia [2] [6]4/10/7210/25/73
Seychelles-
10/11/79
Sierra Leone11/7/72
6/29/76
Singapore6/19/72
12/2/75
Slovakia [3]-
5/17/93
Slovenia [2]-
4/7/92
Solomon Islands [8]-
6/17/81
Somalia7/3/72-
South Africa4/10/72
11/3/75
South Korea4/10/72
6/25/87
Spain4/10/72
6/20/79
Sri Lanka4/10/72
11/18/86
Sudan-
10/17/03
Suriname-
1/6/93
Swaziland-
6/18/91
Sweden2/27/75
2/5/76
Switzerland4/10/72
5/4/76
Syria4/14/72-
Tajikistan-6/27/05
Tanzania8/16/72
-
Thailand1/17/73
5/28/75
Timor Leste-5/5/03
Togo4/10/72
11/10/76
Tonga-9/28/76
Trinidad & Tobago-7/19/07
Tunisia4/10/72
5/18/73
Turkey4/10/72
10/25/74
Turkmenistan-1/11/96
Uganda-
5/12/92
Ukraine4/10/72
3/26/75
United Arab Emirates9/28/72
6/19/08
United Kingdom4/10/72
3/26/75
United States4/10/72
3/26/75
Uruguay-
4/6/81
Uzbekistan-
1/11/96
Vanuatu-
10/12/90
Venezuela4/10/72
10/18/78
Vietnam-
6/20/80
Yemen [9]4/26/72
6/1/79
Zambia-
1/15/08
Zimbabwe-
11/5/90

Taiwan (the Republic of China) has also stated its intent to abide by the treaty, despite not being a state party. The Republic of China signed the treaty on April 10, 1972 and ratified it on February 9, 1973.

Source: UN Website

Research assistance by Marissa Papatola

Footnotes

1. Succession from the United Kingdom

2. Succession from Yugoslavia

3. Succession from Czechoslovakia

4. Ratification as Zaire

5. Ratification as East Germany and West Germany

6. Ratified as Serbia and Montenegro

7. Ratified as the Soviet Union

8. Succession from the United Kingdom

9. Ratified as South Yemen and North Yemen

Posted: September 27, 2017