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"I want to thank the Arms Control Association … for being such effective advocates for sensible policies to stem the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and most importantly, reduce the risk of nuclear war."
– Senator Joe Biden
January 28, 2004
Biological Weapons Convention Signatories and States-Parties
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Press Contact: Tom Z. Collina, Research Director, (202) 463-8270 x104

The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) currently has 163 states-parties. 13 signatory states have not yet ratified. The BWC was opened for signature on April 10, 1972 and entered into force on March 26, 1975. A country that did not ratify the BWC before it entered into force may accede to it at any time.

For a guide to the terms of the convention, see The Biological Weapons Convention (CWC) at a Glance.


Country

Signature

Ratification/Accession

Afghanistan 4/10/72
3/26/75
Albania -
6/3/92
Algeria -
7/22/01
Antigua & Barbuda - 1/29/03
Argentina 8/1/72 11/27/79
Armenia -
6/7/94
Australia 4/10/72
10/5/77
Austria 4/10/72
8/10/73
Azerbaijan -
2/26/04
Bahamas -
11/26/86
Bahrain -
10/28/88
Bangladesh -
3/11/85
Barbados 2/16/73 2/16/73
Belarus 4/10/72
3/26/75
Belgium 4/10/72
3/15/79
Belize [1]
- 10/20/86
Benin 4/10/72
4/25/75
Bhutan -
6/8/78
Bolivia 4/10/72
4/25/75
Bosnia and Herzegovina [2]
-
8/15/94
Botswana 4/10/72
2/5/92
Brazil 4/10/72
2/27/73
Brunei Darussalem -
1/31/91
Bulgaria 4/10/72
8/2/72
Burkina Faso -
4/17/91
Burundi 04/10/72
-
Cambodia 4/10/72
3/9/83
Canada 4/10/72
9/18/72
Cape Verde -
10/20/77
Central African Republic 4/10/72 -
Chile 4/10/72
4/22/80
China -
11/15/84
Colombia 4/10/72
12/19/83
Congo -
10/23/78
Cook Islands - 12/4/08
Costa Rica 4/10/72
12/17/73
Côte d'Ivoire 5/23/72
-
Croatia [2]
-
4/28/93
Cuba 4/10/72
4/21/76
Cyprus 4/10/72
11/6/73
Czech Republic [3]
-
4/5/93
Democratic Republic of Congo [4]
4/10/72
9/16/75
Denmark 4/10/72
3/1/73
Dominica -
11/8/78
Dominican Republic 4/10/72
2/23/73
Ecuador 6/14/72
3/21/73
Egypt 4/10/72 -
El Salvador 4/10/72
12/31/91
Equatorial Guinea -
1/16/89
Estonia -
6/21/93
Ethiopia 4/10/72
5/26/75
Fiji 2/22/73
9/4/73
Finland 4/10/72
2/4/74
France -
9/27/84
Gabon 4/10/72
8/16/07
Gambia 6/2/72
11/21/91
Georgia -
5/23/96
Germany [5]
4/10/72
11/28/72
Ghana 4/10/72
6/6/75
Greece 4/10/72
12/10/75
Grenada -
10/22/86
Guatemala 5/9/72
9/19/73
Guinea-Bissau -
8/20/76
Guyana 1/3/73
-
Haiti 4/10/72
-
Holy See 1/4/02
1/4/02
Honduras 4/10/72
3/14/79
Hungary 4/10/72 12/27/72
Iceland 4/10/72
2/15/73
India 1/15/73
7/15/74
Indonesia 6/20/72
2/19/92
Iran 4/10/72
8/22/73
Iraq 5/11/72 6/19/91
Ireland 4/10/72 10/27/72
Italy 4/10/72
5/30/75
Jamaica -
8/13/75
Japan 4/10/72
6/8/82
Jordan 4/10/72
5/30/75
Kazakhstan -
6/15/07
Kenya -
11/7/76
Kuwait 4/14/72
7/18/72
Laos 4/10/72
3/20/73
Latvia -
2/6/97
Lebanon 4/10/72 3/26/75
Lesotho 4/10/72
9/6/77
Liberia 4/10/72
-
Libya - 1/19/82
Liechtenstein -
5/30/91
Lithuania -
2/10/98
Luxembourg 4/10/72
3/23/76
Macedonia [2]
-
12/24/96
Madagascar 10/13/72
3/7/08
Malawi 4/10/72
-
Malaysia 4/10/72
9/6/91
Maldives -
8/2/93
Mali 4/10/72
11/25/02
Malta 9/11/72
4/7/75
Mauritius 4/10/72
8/7/72
Mexico 4/10/72
4/8/74
Monaco -
4/30/99
Mongolia 4/10/72
9/5/72
Montenegro [6] 4/10/72
6/3/06
Morocco 5/2/72
3/21/02
Myanmar 4/10/72
-
Nepal 4/10/72
-
Netherlands 4/10/72
6/22/81
New Zealand 4/10/72
12/13/72
Nicaragua 4/10/72
7/8/75
Niger 4/21/72
6/23/72
Nigeria 7/3/72
7/3/73
Norway 4/10/72
8/1/73
Oman -
3/31/92
Pakistan 4/10/72
9/25/74
Palau - 2/20/03
Panama 5/2/72 3/20/74
Papua New Guinea -
10/27/80
Paraguay -
6/9/76
Peru 4/10/72
6/5/85
Philippines 4/10/72
5/21/73
Poland 4/10/72
1/25/73
Portugal 6/29/72
5/15/75
Qatar 11/14/72
4/17/75
Romania 4/10/72
7/25/79
Russia [7]
4/10/72
3/26/75
Rwanda 4/10/72
5/20/75
St. Kitts & Nevis
-
4/2/91
St. Lucia [8]
-
11/26/86
St. Vincent & the Grenadines [8]
-
4/2/91
San Marino 9/12/72
3/11/75
Sao Tome and Principe - 8/24/79
Saudi Arabia 4/10/72
5/24/72
Senegal 4/10/72
3/26/75
Serbia [2] [6]
4/10/72 10/25/73
Seychelles -
10/11/79
Sierra Leone 11/7/72
6/29/76
Singapore 6/19/72
12/2/75
Slovakia [3]
-
5/17/93
Slovenia [2]
-
4/7/92
Solomon Islands [8]
-
6/17/81
Somalia 7/3/72 -
South Africa 4/10/72
11/3/75
South Korea 4/10/72
6/25/87
Spain 4/10/72
6/20/79
Sri Lanka 4/10/72
11/18/86
Sudan -
10/17/03
Suriname -
1/6/93
Swaziland -
6/18/91
Sweden 2/27/75
2/5/76
Switzerland 4/10/72
5/4/76
Syria 4/14/72 -
Tajikistan - 6/27/05
Tanzania 8/16/72
-
Thailand 1/17/73
5/28/75
Timor Leste - 5/5/03
Togo 4/10/72
11/10/76
Tonga - 9/28/76
Trinidad & Tobago - 7/19/07
Tunisia 4/10/72
5/18/73
Turkey 4/10/72
10/25/74
Turkmenistan - 1/11/96
Uganda -
5/12/92
Ukraine 4/10/72
3/26/75
United Arab Emirates 9/28/72
6/19/08
United Kingdom 4/10/72
3/26/75
United States 4/10/72
3/26/75
Uruguay -
4/6/81
Uzbekistan -
1/11/96
Vanuatu -
10/12/90
Venezuela 4/10/72
10/18/78
Vietnam -
6/20/80
Yemen [9]
4/26/72
6/1/79
Zambia -
1/15/08
Zimbabwe -
11/5/90

 

Taiwan has also stated its intent to abide by the treaty, despite not being a state party. The Republic of China signed the treaty on April 10, 1972 and ratified it on February 9, 1973.

Non-Signatory States

  • Andorra
  • Angola
  • Cameroon
  • Chad
  • Comoros
  • Djibouti
  • Eritrea
  • Guinea
  • Israel
  • Kiribati
  • Marshall Islands
  • Mauritania
  • Micronesia
  • Namibia
  • Nauru
  • Niue
  • Samoa
  • Tuvalu

Source: BTWC Website

Footnotes

1. Succession from the United Kingdom

2. Succession from Yugoslavia

3. Succession from Czechoslovakia

4. Ratification as Zaire

5. Ratification as East Germany and West Germany

6. Ratified as Serbia and Montenegro

7. Ratified as the Soviet Union

8. Succession from the United Kingdom

9. Ratified as South Yemen and North Yemen