The June 2012 news brief “U.S., Russia Discuss Cyber Hotline” referred to plans for “a hotline [between Moscow and Washington] for cyberattacks similar to one used since 1988 to prevent accidental nuclear war.” The first hotline was established in 1963; it relied on telegraph messages routed through a number of intermediate cities. The 1988 version established a direct link between Moscow and Washington, with voice capability.