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– Hans Blix,
former IAEA Director-General

U.S. and Russian/Soviet Strategic Nuclear Forces
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Since START I entered into force December 5, 1994, the treaty parties have substantially reduced their deployed strategic nuclear forces to comply with treaty limits that they must reach by December 2001. START I will limit the United States and Russia to 1,600 deployed strategic delivery vehicles (bombers and land- and submarine-based missiles) carrying 6,000 nuclear warheads, to be counted according to rules delineated in the treaty text.

START I was signed July 31, 1991, by the United States and the Soviet Union. Five months later, the Soviet Union dissolved, leaving four independent states in possession of strategic nuclear weapons: Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan. On May 23, 1992, the United States and the four nuclear-capable successor states to the Soviet Union signed the “Lisbon Protocol,” which makes all five nations party to the START I agreement. (Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan also agreed to join the Non-Proliferation Treaty as non-nuclear-weapon states.)

Under START I, the five parties semiannually exchange memoranda of understanding (MOUs) containing numbers, types, and locations of treaty-accountable strategic nuclear weapons. The tables presented here compare information from the initial September 1990 MOU with data from the July 2001 MOU, demonstrating the progress the parties have made.

Soviet/Russian numbers for 1990 apply to the Soviet Union, while current numbers are provided separately for Russia and Ukraine. Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine have transferred all of their nuclear warheads to Russia, but Ukraine continues to dismantle associated delivery vehicles and hence has “START-accountable” weapons on its territory.

—For more information, contact Philipp C. Bleek.

U.S. Strategic Forces
 
Delivery Vehicles
Warheads
ICBMs
September 1990
July 2001
September 1990
July 2001
MX/Peacekeeper
50
50
500
500
Minuteman III
500
526
1,500
1,578
Minuteman II
450
1
450
1
Subtotal
1,000
577
2,450
2,079
SLBMs        
Poseidon (C-3)
192
16
1,920
160
Trident I (C-4)
384
192
3,072
1,536
Trident II (D-5)
96
240
768
1,920
Subtotal
672
448
5,760
3,616
Bombers        
B-52 (ALCM)
189
116
1,968
1,160
B-52 (Non-ALCM)
290
47
290
47
B-1
95
91
95
91
B-2
20
20
Subtotal
574
274
2,353
1,318
Total
2,246
1,299
10,563
7,013

 

Soviet/Russian Strategic Forces
 
Delivery Vehicles
Warheads
ICBMs
September 19901
July 20012
September 19901
July 20012
SS-11
326
0
326
0
SS-13
40
0
40
0
SS-17
47
0
188
0
SS-18
308
166
3,080
1,660
SS-19
300
150
1,800
900
SS-24 (silo)
56
6
560
60
SS-24 (rail)
33
36
330
360
SS-25
288
360
288
360
SS-273 (silo)
24
24
SS-273 (rail)
Subtotal
1,398
742
6,612
3,364
SLBMs        
SS-N-6
192
0
192
0
SS-N-8
280
36
280
36
SS-N-17
12
0
12
0
SS-N-18
224
128
672
384
SS-N-20
120
100
1,200
1,000
SS-N-23
112
112
448
448
Subtotal
940
376
2,804
1,868
Bombers        
Bear (ALCM)
84
63
672
504
Bear (Non-ALCM)
63
2
63
2
Blackjack
15
15
120
120
Subtotal
162
80
855
626
Total
2,500
1,198
10,271
5,858

 

Current Strategic Forces Ukraine
July 2001
Delivery Vehicles
Warheads 4
ICBMs    
SS-24 (silo)
13
130
Bombers    
Bear (ALCM)
0
0
Blackjack
0
0
Total
13
130

Key: ICBM: Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, SLBM: Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile, ALCM: Air-Launched Cruise Missile


NOTES
1. Includes weapons in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.
2. Weapons in Russia only.
3. Also known as the TOPOL-M or RS-12M Variant 2 ICBM.
4. Even though all nuclear warheads from Ukraine have been transported to Russia, they remain START accountable until their associated delivery systems have been destroyed.

Sources: START I Memorandum of Understanding, September 1, 1990; START I Memorandum of Understanding, July 31, 2001; Arms Control Association.

Posted: October 1, 2001