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"[Arms Control Today is] Absolutely essential reading for the upcoming Congressional budget debate on the 2018 #NPR and its specific recommendations ... well-informed, insightful, balanced, and filled with common sense."

– Frank Klotz
former Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration
March 7, 2018
U.S. and Soviet/Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces

START I was signed July 31, 1991, and entered into force on December 5, 1994. Under the treaty, the five parties—the United States, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine—semi-annually exchange memorandum of understanding (MOU) data providing numbers, types and locations of accountable strategic nuclear weapons. The tables below compare the number of START-accountable deployed warheads declared in the initial September 1990 MOU with data from the July 1999 MOU, demonstrating the progress the parties have made in nuclear force reduction thus far.

For more information, contact Wade Boese.


U.S. Strategic Forces:

Warheads by Delivery System1

  September

1990

July

1999

ICBMs
MX 500 500
Minuteman III 1,500 1,950
Minuteman II 450 1
Total 2,450 2,451
SLBMs
Poseidon (C-3) 1,920 320
Trident I (C-4) 3,072 1,536
Trident II (D-5) 768 1,920
Total 5,760 3,776
Bombers
B-52 (ALCM) 1,968 1,430
B-52 (Non-ALCM) 290 47
B-1 95 91
B-2 0 20
Total 2,353 1,588
Total Warheads 10,563 7,815

Soviet/Russian Strategic Forces:

Warheads by Delivery System1

  September

19902

July

19993

ICBMs
SS-11 326 0
SS-13 40 0
SS-17 188 0
SS-18 3,080 1,800
SS-19 1,800 960
SS-24 (silo) 560 100
SS-24 (rail) 330 360
SS-25 288 360
SS-27 (silo)4 10
SS-27 (road)4 0
Total 6,612 3,590
SLBMs
SS-N-6 192 0
SS-N-8 280 128
SS-N-17 12 0
SS-N-18 672 624
SS-N-20 1,200 1,200
SS-N-23 448 448
Total 2,804 2,400
Bombers
Bear (ALCM) 672 504
Bear (Non-ALCM) 63 4
Blackjack 120 48
Total 855 556
Total Warheads 10,271 6,546

Strategic Forces on Non-Russian Territory1

  Belarus Kazakhstan Ukraine
ICBMs 0 0 400 (SS-24)
SLBMs 0 0 0
Bombers 0 0 192 (Bear)

136 (Blackjack)

Total 0 0 728

NOTES

1. Warhead attributions are based on START I counting rules. This results in bombers having fewer warheads attributed to them than they actually carry. On the other hand, even though all nuclear warheads from Ukraine have been removed to Russia, they remain START-accountable until the delivery systems have been destroyed. [Back to Table 1 , 2 or 3]

2. Includes weapons in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine. [Back to Table]

3. Weapons in Russia only. [Back to Table]

4. Also known as the TOPOL-M or RS-12M Variant 2 ICBM. [Back to Table]

Sources: START I Memorandum of Understanding, July 1, 999; ACA.