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Worldwide Ballistic Missile Inventories

Press Contacts: Kelsey Davenport, Research Analyst, (202) 463-8270 x102

Updated: January 2012

The following chart lists 31 countries, including the United States and its allies, which currently possess ballistic missiles. For each country, the chart details the type of missile, its operational status, and the best-known public estimates of each missile’s range and payload. The source of the missiles—whether domestically produced, imported, or some combination of the two methods (derived or replicated from foreign technology with or without the original exporter’s consent)—is also provided.

Only nine (China, France, India, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) of the 31 states below are known or suspected of possessing nuclear weapons. These nine states and Iran have produced or flight-tested missiles with ranges exceeding 1,000 kilometers. China and Russia are the only two states that are not U.S. allies that have a proven capability to launch ballistic missiles from their territories that can strike the continental United States.

Ballistic Missile Basics

Ballistic missiles are powered by rockets initially but then they follow an unpowered, free-falling trajectory toward their targets. They are classified by the maximum distance that they can travel, which is a function of how powerful the missile’s engines (rockets) are and the weight of the missile’s payload. To add more distance to a missile’s range, rockets are stacked on top of each other in a configuration referred to as staging. There are four general classifications of ballistic missiles:

  • Short-range ballistic missiles, traveling less than 1,000 kilometers (approximately 620 miles);
  • Medium-range ballistic missiles, traveling between 1,000–3,000 kilometers (approximately 620-1,860 miles);
  • Intermediate-range ballistic missiles, traveling between 3,000–5,500 kilometers (approximately 1,860-3,410 miles); and
  • Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), traveling more than 5,500 kilometers.

Short- and medium-range ballistic missiles are referred to as theater ballistic missiles, whereas ICBMs or long-range ballistic missiles are described as strategic ballistic missiles. Missiles are often classified by fuel-type: liquid or solid propellants. Missiles with solid fuel require less maintenance and preparation time than missiles with liquid fuel because solid-propellants have the fuel and oxidizer together, whereas liquid-fueled missiles must keep the two separated until right before deployment.

Country

System[1]

Status

Range[2]

Propellant

Afghanistan

Scud-B

Unknown[3]

300 km

Liquid

Armenia

Scud-B[4]

Operational

300 km

Liquid

Bahrain

ATACMS (MGM-140)

Operational

Up to 300 km

Solid

Belarus

SS-21

Operational

120 km

Solid

Scud-B

Operational

300 km

Liquid

China

B611 (CSS-X-11)

Operational

250 km

Solid

M-7 (CSS-8)

Operational

150-230 km


Liquid

DF-3A (CSS-2)

Operational

2,800 km

Liquid

DF-4 (CSS-3)

Operational

5,470+ km


Liquid

DF-5 (CSS-4, Mod 1)

Operational

12,000 km


Liquid

DF-5A (CSS-4, Mod 2)

Operational

13,000 km


Liquid

DF-11 (CSS-7)

Operational

300 km


Solid

DF-11A (CSS-7)

Operational

600 km

Solid

DF-15 (CSS-6)

Operational

600 km


Solid

DF-15? (CSS-6 Mod 2)

Operational

880+ km

Solid

DF-15? (CSS-6 Mod 3)

Operational

720+ km

Solid

DF-21 (CSS-5, Mod 1)

Operational

2,500 km


Solid

DF-21A (CSS-5, Mod 2)

Operational

1,770+ km


Solid

DF-21C (CSS-5 Mod 3)

Operational

2,150-2,500 km


Solid

DF-21D ASBM variant

Development[5]

1,500 km


Solid

DF-31 (CSS-10 Mod 1)

Operational

7,250+ km


Solid

DF-31A (CSS-10 Mod 2)

Operational

11,270+ km

Solid

Julang (JL) 1 (SLBM)

Operational

1,700+ km


Solid

Julang (JL) 2 (SLBM)

Tested/Development

7400 km

Solid

Egypt

Scud-B

Operational

300 km

Liquid

Project-T (Scud B)

Operational

450 km

Liquid

Scud-C

Operational

550 km

Liquid

France

M4A/B (SLBM)

Operational

6,000 km


Solid

M45 (SLBM)

Operational

6,000 km


Solid

M51 (SLBM)

Tested/Development

8,000 km


Solid

Georgia

Scud B

Operational

300 km

Liquid

Greece

ATACMS (MGM-140)

Operational

165 km

Solid

India[6]

Prithvi-1

Operational

150 km

Liquid

Prithvi-2

Operational

250 km

Liquid

Prithvi-3

Development

350 km

Solid

Dhanush

Operational

400

Liquid

Sagarika/K-15 (SLBM)

Tested

750

Solid

Agni-1

Operational

700 km

Solid

Agni-2

Operational

2,000 km

Solid

Agni-3

Operational

3,000 km

Solid

Agni-4

Tested

3,500 km

Solid

Agni-5

Development

5,000 km

Solid

Iran[7]

 

Mushak-120

Operational

130 km

Solid

Mushak-160

Operational

160 km

Solid

Qiam-1

Operational

+300 km

Liquid

Fateh-110

Operational

200 km

Solid

Tondar-69 (CSS-8)

Operational

150 km

Solid

Scud-B

Operational

300 km

Liquid

Scud-C

Operational

550 km

Liquid

Shahab-3 (Zelzal-3)

Operational

1,300-2,000 km

Liquid

Ghadr 1/Ghadr 110

Tested/Development

2,500 km

Liquid

Ashura/Sejjil/Sejjil-2

Tested/Development

2,000-2,500 km

Solid

Iraq[8]

Al Fat’h

Unknown

160 km

Solid

Al Samoud II

Unknown

180-200 km

Liquid

Israel

Lance

Operational

130 km

Liquid

Jericho-1

Operational

500 km

Solid

Jericho-2

Operational

1,500 km

Solid

Jericho-3

Operational?

4,800 km

Solid/Liquid

Kazakhstan

Tochka-U (SS-21)

Operational

120 km

Solid

Scud-B

Operational

300 km

Liquid

Libya[9]

Al Fatah (Itislat)

Tested/Development

200 km

Liquid

Scud-B

Operational

300 km

Liquid

North Korea

Toksa/SS-21 variant

Tested/Development

120 km

Solid

Scud-B variant/Hwasong 5

Operational

300 km

Liquid

Scud-C variant/Hwasong 6

Operational

500 km

Liquid

No-Dong-1

Operational

1,300 km

Liquid

No-Dong-2

Tested/Development

1,500 km

Liquid

Taepo Dong-1[10]

Tested

2,000 km

Liquid

Taepo Dong-2 (2-stage) [11]

Tested/Development

9,000+ km

Liquid

Taepo Dong-2 (3-stage)/Unha-2 SLV

Tested/Development

15,000 km

Liquid

Musudan/BM-25/SS-N-6 variant[12]

Development?

4,000 km

Liquid

Pakistan

Hatf-1

Operational

80-100 km

Solid

Hatf-2 (Abdali)

Tested/Development

190 km

Solid

Hatf-3 (Ghaznavi)

Operational

300 km

Solid

Shaheen-1 (Hatf-4)

Operational

750 km

Solid

Ghauri-1 (Hatf-5)

Operational

1,300 km

Liquid

Ghauri-2 (Hatf-5a)

Tested/Development

2,300 km

Liquid

Shaheen-2 (Hatf-6)

Tested/Development

2,500 km

Solid

Ghauri-3

Development

3,000 km

Liquid

Romania

Scud-B

Operational

300 km

Liquid

Russia

Scud-B (SS-1c Mod 1)

Operational

300 km

Liquid

Scud-B (SS-1c Mod 2)

Operational

240 km

Liquid

SS-18

Operational

10,000 km

Liquid

SS-19

Operational

10,000 km

Liquid

SS-21

Operational

120 km

Solid

SS-21 Mod 2

Operational

120 km

Solid

SS-21 Mod 3

Operational

70 km

Solid

SS-24

Operational

10,000 km

Solid

SS-25

Operational

10,500 km

Solid

SS-27 (Topol M)[13]

Operational

11,000 km

Solid

SS-27 Mod-X-2

Operational

11,000 km

Solid

SS-26 (Iskander)

Operational

400 km

Solid

SS-N-8 (SLBM)

Operational

8,000 km

Liquid

SS-N-18 (SLBM)

Operational

6,500-8,000 km

Liquid

SS-N-20 (SLBM)

Being Retired

8,300 km

Solid

SS-N-23 (SLBM)

Operational

8,000 km

Liquid

RSM-56 (Bulava-30)

Tested/Development

10,000 km

Solid

SS-26 Stone (Iskader-E)

Operational

280 km

Solid

Saudi Arabia

DF-3 (CSS-2)

Operational

2,600 km

Liquid

Slovakia

SS-21

Operational

120 km

Solid

South Korea

NHK-1

Operational

180 km

Solid

NHK-2

Operational

260-300 km

Solid

ATACMS Block 1/A

Operational

300 km

Solid

Syria

SS-21

Operational

120 km

Solid

Scud-B

Operational

300 km


Liquid

Scud-C

Operational

500 km

Liquid

Scud-D

Tested/Development

700 km

Liquid

Taiwan

Ching Feng

Operational

130 km

Liquid

Tien Chi

Operational

300 km

Solid

Turkey

ATACMS (MGM-140)

Operational

165 km

Solid

Project J

Development

150 km

Solid

Turkmenistan

Scud-B

Operational

300 km

Liquid

United Arab Emirates

Scud-B

Operational

300 km

Liquid

United Kingdom

D-5 Trident II (SLBM)

Operational

7,400 km

Solid

United States

ATACMS Block I

Operational

165 km

Solid

ATACMS Block IA

Operational

300 km

Solid

ATACMS Block II

Operational

140 km

Solid

Minuteman III

Operational

9,650-13,000 km

Solid

D-5 Trident II (SLBM)

Operational

7,400+ km

Solid

Vietnam

Scud-B

Operational

300 km

Liquid

Yemen[14]

Scud-B

Operational

300 km

Liquid

SS-21

Operational

120 km

Solid

Scud variant

Operational

300-500 km

Liquid

ENDNOTES:

1. All missiles are surface-to-surface unless otherwise noted. SLBM is an acronym for a submarine-launched ballistic missile and ASBM is an acronym for an anti-ship ballistic missile.

2. The ranges, given in kilometers (km) are estimates based on publicly available sources. These figures, however, do not all necessarily reflect the missile’s maximum range, which may vary with its payload. Equipping a missile with a lighter payload would increase its range. Similarly, a heavier payload would diminish a missile’s range.

3. A January 15, 2001 report by the UN Monitoring Group on Afghanistan concluded that, prior to the October 2001 U.S.-led offensive in Afghanistan, there were approximately 100 Scud-B missiles and at least four Scud mobile launchers in Afghanistan. The current distribution and operational capability of the missiles are unknown, although the UN Monitoring Group speculated that up to 30 of the missiles might be under control of the Northern Alliance.

4. According to a 1997 report by Lev Rokhlin, then-Chairman of the Russian State Duma’s Committee on Defense, Russia transferred eight Scud-B ballistic missiles and 24 Scud launchers, along with other military hardware, to Armenia between 1993-1996. Responding to publication of the report in the Russian newspaper Nezavisimaya Gazeta and to formal requests by the Azerbaijan government, then-Russian President Boris Yeltsin ordered an investigation into the claims. They were subsequently confirmed in April 1997 by Aman Tuleyev, then-Russian minister for relations with the Commonwealth of Independent States.

5. According to the Department of Defense’s 2009 report on China’s military power, Beijing is investing in conventionally-armed ASBMs based on the CSS-5 airframe which could employ “terminal-sensitive penetrating sub-munitions” in order to hold surface ships at risk.

6. India and Pakistan claim that their missiles are not deployed, meaning that the missiles are not on launchers, aimed at particular locations, or kept on a high state of alert. The missiles are in a state of “induction” with the nuclear warheads stored in facilities separate from the missile units and airfields. Pakistan and India, however, have deployed their missiles on a number of occasions, such as the Kargil crisis in July 1999.

7. In addition to the ballistic missiles listed here, Iran has been developing a 2-stage space launch vehicle called the Safir. After an initial unsuccessful launch of the Safir-1 rocket August 17, 2008, Iran successfully launched the Safir-2 February 2, 2009 and placed a small satellite in orbit. A 2009 report by the National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC) assessed that the Safir “can serve as a test bed for long-range ballistic missile technologies” and could serve as an IRBM if converted to a ballistic missile.

8. Because of lack of current documentary evidence and inconsistencies in source reporting, the status of Iraq’s ballistic missile arsenal is unclear. The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) determined in 2003 that the Al Samoud II and the Al Fat’h missiles exceeded the range permitted under UN Security Council Resolution 687. That resolution prohibited Iraq from possessing missiles with ranges exceeding 150 kilometers. UN inspectors began the destruction of these missiles on March 1, 2003, but the inspectors were withdrawn before all of the missiles had been eliminated. According to UNMOVIC’s 13th Quarterly Report, only two-thirds of the Al Samoud II missiles declared by Iraq had been destroyed. The 2004 Iraq Survey Group Report by the United States asserted that a “full accounting of the Al Fat’h missiles may not be possible.”

9. According to a CIA Report, Libya privately pledged to the United States in 2003 that it would eliminate all missiles classified as Category I systems by the MTCR. Category I pertains to missiles capable of traveling 300 kilometers or more with a payload of at least 500 kilograms, the presumed minimum weight for a first-generation nuclear warhead. Libya, however, still maintains a missile development program for systems that fall below the Category I threshold capability.

10. The Taepo Dong-1 was first flight-tested August 31, 1998. Its first two stages worked but a third stage failed. The missile has not been flight-tested again and is widely believed to have been a technology demonstrator rather than a missile system intended for deployment.

11. North Korea has carried out two flight tests of what is believed to be its Taepo Dong-2 missile. The test of a two-stage version failed about 40 seconds into its flight on July 5, 2006. The missile is assessed to have used a cluster of No Dong missiles for its first stage and a Scud or No Dong-based second stage. On April 5, 2009, North Korea launched what it called its Unha-2 space launch vehicle, widely believed to be a three-stage variant of its Taepo Dong-2. The first two stages of the rocket were successful and fell in the splashdown zones previously announced by North Korea. U.S. Northern Command said the day of the launch that the third stage and its payload both landed in the Pacific Ocean. Independent analysts assess that the second stage of the Taepo Dong-2 is based on a variant of the Soviet SS-N-6 (See endnote #14).

12. Although North Korea has never flight-tested the intermediate-range Musudan, a variant of the SS-N-6, Washington alleges that Pyongyang has deployed the missile. The SS-N-6 originally was a Soviet submarine-launched ballistic missile, but North Korea is reportedly deploying it as a road-mobile missile. There also is speculation that North Korea has transferred this missile to Iran.

13. The SS-27 (Topol-M/RS-12M) is deployed in both road-mobile and silo-based configurations.

14. On December 9, 2002, Spanish forces intercepted a North Korean cargo ship bearing 15 Scud missiles to Yemen. The United States intervened to permit the transfer to be completed because Yemen is considered an important ally in the U.S.-led “War on Terror.” Yemen pledged to cease further arms purchases from North Korea.


Sources: Arms Control Association; Missile Defense Agency; U.S. Department of Defense; Congressional Research Service; National Air and Space Intelligence Center; U.S. Department of State; Federation of American Scientists

-Research provided by Abby Doll, Rachel Weise, and Kathleen Masterson



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