September 6, 2000
U.S. President Bill Clinton and Russian President Vladimir Putin approved the "Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative" at the United Nations Millennium Summit in New York September 6. The document contains a joint statement in which both sides reaffirm their support for a range of existing arms control agreements and objectives, followed by an "implementation plan" that recommits the countries to undertake and extend a range of existing initiatives in the field of arms control and non-proliferation. (For more information on the initiative, see p. 26.)
The "implementation plan" covers ongoing and future cooperation on theater missile defense testing, missile non-proliferation, verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, and progress on a shared early-warning center and a bilateral ballistic missile prelaunch notification agreement.
The "Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative" builds on two prior statements: the "Joint Statement on Principles of Strategic Stability," signed in Moscow June 4, and the "Joint Statement on Cooperation on Strategic Stability," adopted at the Okinawa Group of Eight summit July 21. These two statements and the latest initiative are intended to formalize understandings reached during ongoing bilateral talks between senior U.S. and Russian officials.
Strategic Stability Cooperation InitiativePresident William Jefferson Clinton of the United States of America and President Vladimir Putin of the Russian Federation met today in New York and agreed on a Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative as a constructive basis for strengthening trust between the two sides and for further development of agreed measures to enhance strategic stability and to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, missiles and missile technologies worldwide. In furtherance of this initiative, the two Presidents approved an implementation plan developed by their experts as a basis for continuing this work.
The Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative builds on the Presidents' agreement in their two previous meetings. The Joint Statement on Principles of Strategic Stability, adopted in Moscow on June 4, 2000, and the Joint Statement on Cooperation on Strategic Stability, adopted in Okinawa on July 21, 2000, establish a constructive basis for progress in further reducing nuclear weapons arsenals, preserving and strengthening the ABM [Anti-Ballistic Missile] Treaty, and confronting new challenges to international security. The United States and Russia reaffirm their commitment to the ABM Treaty as a cornerstone of strategic stability. The United States and Russia intend to implement the provisions of the START I and INF [Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces] Treaties, to seek early entry into force of the START II Treaty and its related Protocol, the 1997 New York agreements on ABM issues and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty [CTBT], and to work towards the early realization of the 1997 Helsinki Joint Statement on Parameters on Future Reductions in Nuclear Forces. The United States and Russia also intend to seek new forms of cooperation in the area of non-proliferation of missiles and missile technologies with a view to strengthening international security and maintaining strategic stability within the framework of the Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative between our two countries.
The Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative could include, along with expansion of existing programs, new initiatives aimed at strengthening the security of our two countries and of the entire world community and without prejudice to the security of any state.
START III Treaty and ABM Treaty. The United States and Russia have presented their approaches to the principal provisions of the START III Treaty and on ABM issues. The United States and Russia have held intensified discussions on further reductions in strategic offensive forces within the framework of a future START III Treaty and on ABM issues, with a view to initiating negotiations expeditiously, in accordance with the Moscow Joint Statement of September 2, 1998, the Cologne Joint Statement of June 20, 1999 and the Okinawa Joint Statement of July 21, 2000 by the two Presidents. They will seek to agree upon additional measures to strengthen strategic stability and confidence, and to ensure predictability in the military field.
NPT, CTBT, FMCT, BWC and Nuclear Weapon-Free Zones. The United States and Russia reaffirm their commitment to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as the foundation of the international nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament regime.
The United States and Russia will seek to ensure early entry into force and effective implementation of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. They will continue to work to begin negotiations to conclude a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty and to strengthen the Biological Weapons Convention. They will continue to facilitate the establishment of nuclear weapon-free zones in the world, based on voluntary agreements among states in the relevant region, consistent with the relevant 1999 Report of the United Nations Disarmament Commission, as an important avenue for efforts to prevent nuclear weapons proliferation.
Discussions of issues related to the threat of proliferation of missiles and missile technology. The United States and Russia are prepared to expand their discussions of issues related to the threat of proliferation of missiles and missile technologies. These discussions will include annual briefings based on assessments of factors and events related to ballistic and cruise missile proliferation. Annual assessments will address potential threats to international security. With a view to preventing the proliferation of missiles and weapons of mass destruction, political and diplomatic measures will be discussed and undertaken, using bilateral and multilateral mechanisms.
Cooperation in the area of Theater Missile Defense. The United States and Russia are prepared to resume and then expand cooperation in the area of Theater Missile Defense (TMD), and also to consider the possibility of involving other states, with a view to strengthening global and regional stability.
The sides will consider as specific areas of such cooperation:
Early warning information. The United States and Russia, in implementation of the Memorandum of Agreement between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on the Establishment of a Joint Center for the Exchange of Data from Early Warning Systems and Notification of Missile Launches signed in Moscow on June 4, 2000, intend to establish and put into operation in Moscow within a year the joint center for exchange of data to preclude the possibility of missile launches caused by a false missile attack warning. The Parties will also make efforts to come to an early agreement on a regime for exchanging notifications of missile launches, consistent with the statement of the Presidents at Okinawa on July 21, 2000.
- Expansion of the bilateral program of joint TMD command and staff exercises.
- Possibility of involving other states in joint TMD command and staff exercises.
- Possibility of development of methods for enhanced interaction for joint use of TMD systems.
- Joint development of concepts for possible cooperation in TMD systems.
- Possibility of reciprocal invitation of observers to actual firings of TMD systems.
Missile Non-Proliferation measures. The United States and Russia intend to strengthen the Missile Technology Control Regime [MTCR]. They declare their commitment to seek new avenues of cooperation with a view to limiting proliferation of missiles and missile technologies. Consistent with the July 21, 2000, Joint Statement of the Presidents at Okinawa, they will work together with other states on a new mechanism to integrate, inter alia, the Russian proposal for a Global Control System for Non-Proliferation of Missiles and Missile Technologies (GCS), the U.S. proposal for a missile code of conduct, as well as the MTCR.
Confidence and transparency-building measures. Bearing in mind their obligations under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the United States and Russia will seek to expand cooperation related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) to promote a mutually beneficial technical exchange that will facilitate the implementation of the CTBT after its entry into force. The United States and Russia are prepared to discuss confidence and transparency-building measures as an element of facilitating compliance with, preserving and strengthening the ABM Treaty. These measures could include: data exchanges, pre-notifications of planned events, voluntary demonstrations, participation in observations, organization of exhibitions, and strengthening the ABM Treaty compliance verification process.
The Presidents of the United States and Russia have agreed that officials from the relevant ministries and agencies will meet annually to coordinate their activities in this area, and look forward with interest to such a meeting in the near future.
The United States and Russia call upon all nations of the world to unite their efforts to strengthen strategic stability.
The President of the United States of America
The President of the Russian Federation
Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative Implementation Plan
— Discussions of issues related to the threat of proliferation of missiles and missile technologies
The U.S. will brief Russia on the update of the National Intelligence Estimate of the ballistic missile threat that has just been completed, and Russia will provide its latest assessment.
— Cooperation in the area of Theater Missile Defense
The United States and Russia agreed to conduct a U.S.-Russian planning and simulation exercise in February, 2001 at Colorado Springs, Colorado and a U.S.-Russian field training exercise at Fort Bliss, Texas by late 2001 or early 2002. Planning meetings for the 2001 exercise will continue in Moscow in September and November-December at the Joint National Test Facility in Colorado Springs. Joint TMD exercise expert talks will also discuss the possibility of reciprocal invitation of observers to actual firings of TMD systems.
— Early warning information
By the end of this fall, the United States and Russia expect to begin preparation of the Moscow site for the Joint Data Exchange Center (JDEC) and begin renovation of the building that will house the center, as well as begin drafting concept of operations and standard operating procedures documents. The United States and Russia intend to commence operations at the JDEC in June of 2001, with full operations to begin in September 2001. Regular meetings of working groups under the Joint Commission will take place in coming months.
The United States and Russia have agreed to set as an objective the completion of a bilateral agreement on a pre-launch notification system for launches of ballistic missiles and space launch vehicles by the APEC's [Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation] summit in November, while also reaching agreement on how the system will be opened up to the voluntary participation of all interested countries. They will meet to intensify negotiations in September.
— Missile Non-Proliferation measures
The United States and Russia will work to reach consensus among MTCR partners at the October 9-13 Plenary, as well as with other countries, on plans for a global missile non-proliferation approach.
— Confidence and transparency-building measures
Experts will meet this fall to review and approve additional warhead safety and security issues for expanded cooperation related to the CTBT. Experts will meet before the end of this year to consider expanded cooperation in the area of computations, experiments and materials. Experts in CTBT monitoring and verification will be scheduled to meet in late 2000 or early 2001 to consider expanded cooperation in this area.