"In my home there are few publications that we actually get hard copies of, but [Arms Control Today] is one and it's the only one my husband and I fight over who gets to read it first."

– Suzanne DiMaggio
Senior Fellow, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
April 15, 2019
Proposed U.S. Arms Export Agreements Reported to Congress from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999

Contact: Jeff AbramsonNon-Resident Senior Fellow for Arms Control and Conventional Arms Transfers, [email protected]

Updated: January 2000

From January 1 to December 31, 1999, the Pentagon reported to Congress $20.78 billion in proposed government-to-government conventional arms transfer agreements with nineteen countries. Proposed sales of advanced fighters to Egypt, Greece, Israel, Norway and South Korea, as well as a possible $4.2 billion sale of 14 Patriot Advanced Capability-3 missile systems to Seoul, resulted in a substantial increase in the value of proposed sales from 1998, which totaled $12.1 billion. While the Middle East topped all regions in 1998 with sixty percent of proposed arms deals, it ranked third in 1999 behind Europe and Asia-Pacific. Seven European countries, led by Greece, sought arms worth nearly $7.8 billion. South Korea accounted for more than $5.4 billion of the Asia-Pacific region’s $7.49 billion in possible arms buys. Israel and Egypt requested more than 96 percent of the Middle East’s $5.2 billion total.

Under the 1976 Arms Export Control Act, Congress must be notified of any proposed sale of "major defense equipment," as defined on the U.S. Munitions List, that equals or exceeds $14 million; defense articles and services that are not defined as "major defense equipment" that total $50 million or more; and construction or design services amounting to or surpassing $200 million.1 Once notified, Congress has thirty calendar days (fifteen in the case of NATO members, Australia, Japan and New Zealand) to block a sale by passing a joint resolution of disapproval. The United States conducts government-to-government transfers through the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. Not all notified sales result in final transactions.

The Top 5 Recipients of Arms Deals Reported to Congress in 1999:

Total Value
South Korea
$5.46 billion

Sale of aircraft spare parts under a Cooperative Logistics Supply

64 MK44 Guided Missile Round Pack with tactical MK 116 Block I Rolling Airframe Missiles.

29 Multiple Launch Rocket Systems with fire control panels, 281 MLRS extended range rocket pods, 120 reduced range rocket pods, one MLRS fire control proficiency trainer, 111 M39 Army Tactical Missile Systems Block 1 guided missile and launching assemblies, training and test devices, trucks, and support services.

20 F-16C/D aircraft component kits, spare and repair parts.

14 Patriot Advance Capability-3 fire units consisting of: 14 AN/MPQ-53 radar sets, 14 AN/MSQ-104 engagement control stations, 76 M091 launching stations, 31 OA-9054 (V) 41G antenna mast groups, 14 electric power plants with dual 150kw generators; 616 MIM-104D missiles, 333 SINCGARS and associated equipment.

$3.46 billion

Patriot missile system support equipment.

Four AH-64A Apache attack helicopters.

358 M26A1 Extended Range Rocket pods with M77 grenades for the Multiple Launch Rocket System.70 F-16C/D Block 50+ aircraft.

$2.68 billion

50 F-16C/D aircraft, 50 AN/APG-68(V)X radars and 30 LANTIRN navigation and targeting pods.

42 AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles.

518 M984A1/M985 Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Trucks.

Remanufacture of 24 AH-64A Apache helicopters to AH-64D model helicopters, 12 AN/APG-78 AH-64D Longbow Fire Control Radars, 12 APR-48A Radar Frequency Interferometers, 56 T-700-GE-701C engines, 24 Target Acquisition Designation Sight/Pilot Night Vision Sensors, 480 AGM-114L3 HELLFIRE II laser guided missiles.

700 Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) tail kits, MK-84 inert bombs, testing and spare and repair parts.

$2.6 billion
30 F-16 Block 60 or F-16 Block 50+ aircraft.
$2.35 billion

24 F-16C/D Block 40 aircraft, 28 engines, and 24 AN/APG-68 radars.

Upgrade of five E-2C Update Group II Mission Suite retrofit kits for existing E-2C aircraft.

Six AN/TPQ-36(V)7 FIREFINDER radar sets, 16 AN/VRC-90E SINCGAR radio systems, six commercial M1097A2 HMMWV trucks.

Two UH-60L VIP Blackhawk utility helicopters and two spare engines.

A co-production program for 100 M1A1 Abrams tanks.

Two Gulfstream IV-SP aircraft including four Rolls Royce engines.

239 High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicles.

Modification/upgrade of five AN/TPS-59(V)2 radar systems to the AN/TPS-59(V)3 configuration.


The Arms Control Association maintains a register of all U.S. FMS sales notified to Congress by the Pentagon since January 1990. The register does not necessarily reflect finalized transactions, and therefore is most useful in demonstrating trends in the types of weapon systems the United States is willing to sell, to whom it will sell, and the values involved.


1. Commercial sales of "major defense equipment" that amount to $14 million or more, defense articles and services that equal or exceed $50 million and any items defined as "significant military equipment." As in the case of FMS sales, Congress can block the sale with a joint resolution of disapproval. [Back to text]

Sources: Department of Defense, Department of State, ACA