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Biological Weapons Convention Signatories and States-Parties

Press Contact: Tom Z. Collina, Research Director, (202) 463-8270 x104

Updated: April 2013

The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) currently has 170 states-parties. Several signatory states have not yet ratified. The BWC was opened for signature on April 10, 1972 and entered into force on March 26, 1975. A country that did not ratify the BWC before it entered into force may accede to it at any time.

For a guide to the terms of the convention, see The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) at a Glance.


Country

Signature

Ratification/Accession

Afghanistan 4/10/72
3/26/75
Albania -
6/3/92
Algeria -
7/22/01
Antigua & Barbuda - 1/29/03
Argentina 8/1/72 11/27/79
Armenia -
6/7/94
Australia 4/10/72
10/5/77
Austria 4/10/72
8/10/73
Azerbaijan -
2/26/04
Bahamas -
11/26/86
Bahrain -
10/28/88
Bangladesh -
3/11/85
Barbados 2/16/73 2/16/73
Belarus 4/10/72
3/26/75
Belgium 4/10/72
3/15/79
Belize [1]
- 10/20/86
Benin 4/10/72
4/25/75
Bhutan -
6/8/78
Bolivia 4/10/72
4/25/75
Bosnia and Herzegovina [2]
-
8/15/94
Botswana 4/10/72
2/5/92
Brazil 4/10/72
2/27/73
Brunei Darussalem -
1/31/91
Bulgaria 4/10/72
8/2/72
Burkina Faso -
4/17/91
Burundi 4/10/72
10/18/11
Cambodia 4/10/72
3/9/83
Cameroon - 1/18/13
Canada 4/10/72
9/18/72
Cape Verde -
10/20/77
Central African Republic 4/10/72 -
Chile 4/10/72
4/22/80
China -
11/15/84
Colombia 4/10/72
12/19/83
Congo -
10/23/78
Cook Islands - 12/4/08
Costa Rica 4/10/72
12/17/73
Côte d'Ivoire 5/23/72
-
Croatia [2]
-
4/28/93
Cuba 4/10/72
4/21/76
Cyprus 4/10/72
11/6/73
Czech Republic [3]
-
4/5/93
Democratic Republic of Congo [4]
4/10/72
9/16/75
Denmark 4/10/72
3/1/73
Dominica -
11/8/78
Dominican Republic 4/10/72
2/23/73
Ecuador 6/14/72
3/21/73
Egypt 4/10/72 -
El Salvador 4/10/72
12/31/91
Equatorial Guinea -
1/16/89
Estonia -
6/21/93
Ethiopia 4/10/72
5/26/75
Fiji 2/22/73
9/4/73
Finland 4/10/72
2/4/74
France -
9/27/84
Gabon 4/10/72
8/16/07
Gambia 6/2/72
11/21/91
Georgia -
5/23/96
Germany [5]
4/10/72
11/28/72
Ghana 4/10/72
6/6/75
Greece 4/10/72
12/10/75
Grenada -
10/22/86
Guatemala 5/9/72
9/19/73
Guinea-Bissau -
8/20/76
Guyana 1/3/73
3/26/13
Haiti 4/10/72
-
Holy See 1/4/02
1/4/02
Honduras 4/10/72
3/14/79
Hungary 4/10/72 12/27/72
Iceland 4/10/72
2/15/73
India 1/15/73
7/15/74
Indonesia 6/20/72
2/19/92
Iran 4/10/72
8/22/73
Iraq 5/11/72 6/19/91
Ireland 4/10/72 10/27/72
Italy 4/10/72
5/30/75
Jamaica -
8/13/75
Japan 4/10/72
6/8/82
Jordan 4/10/72
5/30/75
Kazakhstan -
6/15/07
Kenya -
11/7/76
Kuwait 4/14/72
7/18/72
Kyrgyzstan - 10/15/04
Laos 4/10/72
3/20/73
Latvia -
2/6/97
Lebanon 4/10/72 3/26/75
Lesotho 4/10/72
9/6/77
Liberia 4/10/72
-
Libya - 1/19/82
Liechtenstein -
5/30/91
Lithuania -
2/10/98
Luxembourg 4/10/72
3/23/76
Macedonia [2]
-
12/24/96
Madagascar 10/13/72
3/7/08
Malawi 4/10/72
4/2/13
Malaysia 4/10/72
9/6/91
Maldives -
8/2/93
Mali 4/10/72
11/25/02
Malta 9/11/72
4/7/75
Mauritius 4/10/72
8/7/72
Mexico 4/10/72
4/8/74
Moldova - 1/25/05
Monaco -
4/30/99
Mongolia 4/10/72
9/5/72
Montenegro [6] 4/10/72
6/3/06
Morocco 5/2/72
3/21/02
Mozambique - 3/29/11
Myanmar 4/10/72
-
Nauru - 3/5/13
Nepal 4/10/72
-
Netherlands 4/10/72
6/22/81
New Zealand 4/10/72
12/13/72
Nicaragua 4/10/72
7/8/75
Niger 4/21/72
6/23/72
Nigeria 7/3/72
7/3/73
North Korea - 3/13/87
Norway 4/10/72
8/1/73
Oman -
3/31/92
Pakistan 4/10/72
9/25/74
Palau - 2/20/03
Panama 5/2/72 3/20/74
Papua New Guinea -
10/27/80
Paraguay -
6/9/76
Peru 4/10/72
6/5/85
Philippines 4/10/72
5/21/73
Poland 4/10/72
1/25/73
Portugal 6/29/72
5/15/75
Qatar 11/14/72
4/17/75
Romania 4/10/72
7/25/79
Russia [7]
4/10/72
3/26/75
Rwanda 4/10/72
5/20/75
St. Kitts & Nevis
-
4/2/91
St. Lucia [8]
-
11/26/86
St. Vincent & the Grenadines [8]
-
4/2/91
San Marino 9/12/72
3/11/75
Sao Tome and Principe - 8/24/79
Saudi Arabia 4/10/72
5/24/72
Senegal 4/10/72
3/26/75
Serbia [2] [6]
4/10/72 10/25/73
Seychelles -
10/11/79
Sierra Leone 11/7/72
6/29/76
Singapore 6/19/72
12/2/75
Slovakia [3]
-
5/17/93
Slovenia [2]
-
4/7/92
Solomon Islands [8]
-
6/17/81
Somalia 7/3/72 -
South Africa 4/10/72
11/3/75
South Korea 4/10/72
6/25/87
Spain 4/10/72
6/20/79
Sri Lanka 4/10/72
11/18/86
Sudan -
10/17/03
Suriname -
1/6/93
Swaziland -
6/18/91
Sweden 2/27/75
2/5/76
Switzerland 4/10/72
5/4/76
Syria 4/14/72 -
Tajikistan - 6/27/05
Tanzania 8/16/72
-
Thailand 1/17/73
5/28/75
Timor Leste - 5/5/03
Togo 4/10/72
11/10/76
Tonga - 9/28/76
Trinidad & Tobago - 7/19/07
Tunisia 4/10/72
5/18/73
Turkey 4/10/72
10/25/74
Turkmenistan - 1/11/96
Uganda -
5/12/92
Ukraine 4/10/72
3/26/75
United Arab Emirates 9/28/72
6/19/08

United Kingdom

4/10/72
3/26/75
United States 4/10/72
3/26/75
Uruguay -
4/6/81
Uzbekistan -
1/11/96
Vanuatu -
10/12/90
Venezuela 4/10/72
10/18/78
Vietnam -
6/20/80
Yemen [9]
4/26/72
6/1/79
Zambia -
1/15/08
Zimbabwe -
11/5/90

 

Taiwan has also stated its intent to abide by the treaty, despite not being a state party. The Republic of China signed the treaty on April 10, 1972 and ratified it on February 9, 1973.

Non-Signatory States

  • Andorra
  • Angola
  • Chad
  • Comoros
  • Djibouti
  • Eritrea
  • Guinea
  • Israel
  • Kiribati
  • Marshall Islands
  • Mauritania
  • Micronesia
  • Namibia
  • Niue
  • Samoa
  • South Sudan
  • Tuvalu

Source: UN Website

Updated by Alexandra Schmitt

Footnotes

1. Succession from the United Kingdom

2. Succession from Yugoslavia

3. Succession from Czechoslovakia

4. Ratification as Zaire

5. Ratification as East Germany and West Germany

6. Ratified as Serbia and Montenegro

7. Ratified as the Soviet Union

8. Succession from the United Kingdom

9. Ratified as South Yemen and North Yemen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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